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    时间:2016-10-28来源:龙8国际_龙8娱乐_龙8国际娱乐平台 本文已影响
    相关热词搜索:句式 英文 农业科技 摘要 写作 英文论文句式 论文的基本句式 学术论文常用句式 篇一:学术论文写作格式要求英文摘要常用句型 学术论文写作格式要求 英文摘要常用句型 英文摘要虽然不像公文文体那样程序化,但由于它在语法结构上有较强的倾向性,因此英文摘要许多句型模式出现的频率很高,熟练掌握这些常用句型模式,有助于提高英文摘要写作质量和速度,进而能保证其可读性。下面举一些有代表性和常用的句式供参考。 1)常用于摘要开头部分的有4类。 A. (In this paper,…) The results ofA simple method for...cases of The...approach for An attempt to (do)... presented described (through…) reported (under...) discussed (along with...) analyzed 例如:The results of analyses carried out on the process waters generated during the hydrolysis of oil shale from Rundle, Australia via the Fischer assayretorting process are presented. 对用费希尔试料蒸馏法热解澳大利亚鲁德尔页岩所产生的工业废水提出了分析结果。 B. The chief aim purpose object objective the present study ofthis investigation the research these studies to obtain… to evaluate… is (was/has been/will be) to find out… to establish… to asses… 例如:The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and utility of tread ill exercise testing prior to the discharge of patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction. 研究旨在对因急性心肌梗塞住院的患者在出院前进行踏旋器运动试验的安全性与效用做出评价。 The present study The above study This investigationwas has been designed made carried out performed attempted with a view to in order to to clarify… determine… establish… point out… demonstrate… 例如:The present study has been carried out with a view to determine the feasibility of a recently suggested scheme for the economical detection and analysis of ultra-high energy cosmic shower. 研究旨在确定最近推荐的一种对超高能量宇宙射线簇进行经济探测分析可行性的方案。 D. Our studies Their pioneer studies These investigations aim to clarify… determine… establish… demonstrate… provide evidence for… bring out… 例如:These investigations were intended to provide evidence that direct learning is helpful adjunct to natural indirect learning in context. 调查的目的是为直接学习是间接学习的有效补充提供证据。 2)常用于摘要结尾部为的有2类。 A. The studies we have performed These pioneer studies attempted by us The studies initiated in their laboratory We carried out several studies which All further investigations show(ed) have shown (have) demonstrate(ed) that... (have) suggest(ed) (have) reveal(ed) 例如:The studies we have performed showed that Tsingtao lily was a kind of shade plant, demanded strict environmental factors for growth and had poor ecological adaptability. The main factors limiting its growth were light and soil. Dark light and fertile soil were needed. 研究表明青岛百合属阴生植物,对生长条件要求严格,生态适应能力差,其主要限制因子是光照和土壤,即需要弱光和肥沃土壤。 B. The studies The results The tests The researches (have) showed (have) suggested that… illustrated revealed篇二:英文摘要写作 随着改革开放的不断深入,我国科技工作者的科技论文越来越多地参与国际学术交流。论文摘要受关注的程度越来越高,撰写好论文摘要对于提高论文学术水平至关重要。要提高科技论文的学术水平,扩大交流,就必须改变目前部分作者的论文摘要尤其英文摘要撰写质量不高,表达不够规范的状况。 1 摘要的撰写 摘要( abstract,亦称文摘)作为对研究论文正文的精练概括,非常便于读者在最短的时间内了解全文内容。 随着国际检索系统的出现,摘要逐渐成为一种信息高度密集的相对独立文体,为人们在浩如烟海的文献中寻找所需要的信息提供了便利。随着二次文献数据库的普及以及全球科学技术界对科技信息日益增长的需求和重视,论文摘要的受关注率比论文本身要大数十倍甚至数百倍。为此,一篇论文能否得到重视,能否把科研成果准确地传播出去,能否被更多重要的数据库收录,摘要的内容和质量起很大作用。 目前英文摘要存在的普遍弊病是可读性不强, 信息量不够。其中的原因多种多样,最主要的是作者不得要领,写作缺乏逻辑性,尤其在准确表达内容和语法修辞上,亟待提高。英文摘要的语言必须符合英文的语法规定和表达习惯。 许多出版物都对摘要有特定的要求,出版者通常在“Guidelines for Authors”中提供详细要求。 下面介绍通用的英文摘要的写作方法。 1 摘要的定义: 摘要是论文的梗概,是对论文的简单描述: An abstract is a concise summary of your work. “A well prepared abstract enables readers to identify the basic content of a document quickly and accurately, to determine its relevance to their interests, and thus to decide whether they need to read the document in its entirety ” ( American National Standards Institute, 1979). Abstracts should state the objectives of the project, describe the methods used, summarize the significant findings and state the implications of the findings (Day, 1988). 摘要独立于正文,通常收录于相应学科的摘要检索类数据库或专刊内,撰写好摘要对于论文是否被数据库收录和他人引用至关重要。 摘要的目的是为读者提供关于文献内容的有用信息,即论文所包含的主要概念和所讨论的主要问题。读者从摘要中可获知作者的主要研究活动、研究方法和主要研究结果及结论。摘要可以帮助读者判断此论文对自己的研究工作是否有用,是否有必要获取全文,为科研人员、科技情报人员及计算机检索提供方便。 摘要一般分为两类,信息性摘要和指示性摘要。 当今绝大部分的科技期刊和会议论文都要求作者提供信息性摘要。 1)信息性(报道性)摘要( Informative Abstract) 信息性摘要即报道性摘要,也称资料性摘要,它主要报道论文的研究目的、研究方法、研究结果与结论。实际上,信息性摘要是论文全文的高度浓缩,相当于论文的简介或概要,告诉读者这是关于什么的论文,即论文的要点和基本内容,包括论文的最重要的信息材料。但它不是简单对原文篇幅进行按比例的缩减,而是要进行深入加工,文中有的部分可省略。 几乎所有科技出版物要求的均为Informative Abstract。 - communicate specific information from the report, article, or paper. - include the purpose, methods, and scope of the report , article, or paper. - provide the report, article, or paper’s results, conclusions, and recommendations. - are short———from a paragraph to a page or two, depending upon the length of the original work being abstracted. Usually informative abstracts are 10% or less of the length of the original piece. - allow readers to decide whether they want to read the report, article, or paper. 信息性摘要要向读者介绍研究的实际方法和结果,通常应提供尽可能多的定量或定性信息,能定量表述的一定要全部定量化,仅定性描述是不够的,要充分反映论文的创新之处。信息性摘要可以认为是指示性摘要的扩展,换句话说,这类摘要提供了关于一项实验或理论研究的基本情况,即除揭示主题外也总结了主要内容。如: A troop of Guinea baboons living in an enclosure was exposed every day and for twelve consecutive days to anew object. The new object and the object ( s) of the previous day ( s) were presented simultaneously in the compound. [method]. The troop as a whole demonstrated excellent abilities to rapidly react to the new objects: 11 out of 12 new objects were discovered within a maximum of 3 min of their first presentation and were furthermore the first to be approached. [ results]An analysis conducted on data from age and sex subgroup showed the preponderant part played by juveniles and by some adult males in the discovery process and subsequent contacts with objects. [method, result ] The results are discussed within the conceptual frame of “cognitive mapping. ”In addition, the extent to which social factors ( e. g. , dominance) and perceptual and cognitive factors might determine the differential role of subgroups in the exploration and manipulation of objects is examined. [ reference to discussion ] [ Beh.96. 1986, 103 ] 2)指示性摘要( Indicative Abstract , Descriptive Abstract) 指示性摘要即介绍性摘要,也称陈述性摘要。它主要介绍论文的论题,或者概括表述研究的目的, 用简单的几句话使读者对论文所研究的主要内容有一概括的了解,不需要介绍方法、结果、结论的具体内容,也不需要用数据进行定量描述。 Indicative Abstract: - tell readers what information the report, article, or paper contains. - include the purpose, methods, and scope of the report, article, or paper. - do not provide results, conclusions, or recommendations. - are always very short, usually under 100 words. - introduce the subject to readers, who must then read the report, article , or paper to find out the author’s results, conclusions, or recommendations. 指示性摘要只讲述论文或报告的主题思想,不涉及或很少涉及细节问题,但要指明文献的论题和所取得成果的性质及所达到的水平。如: Fast and slow magneto acoustic shocks are studied in the framework of relativistic magneto fluid dynamics with the Synge equation of state. [objective, method ] An approximate analytical solution is presented in a particular case. [ ref. to result ] The general case is treated by numerical methods. [ ref. to methods ] [ Phys. Flu. 30, 1987, 3045 ] 由上述可见,指示性摘要的优点是文字短小,言简意赅,容易写作,但是突出的缺点是信息量较少。与信息性摘要相比,指示性摘要很少有实验研究的具体信息,即使描述实验方法,也要简略得多,有时甚至不直接写具体的实验方法。 摘要的长度应根据文献类型及摘要的用途(转 载 于:wWW.xIElw.COM 龙8国际_龙8娱乐_龙8国际娱乐平台:龙8国际_龙8娱乐_龙8国际娱乐平台)不同 而变化。若无特殊要求,信息性摘要通常以150~250 words为宜,不多于250 words; 指示性摘要以100~150 words为宜。 有些学术期刊规定摘要的长度不能超过一定的字数,作者在投稿前应查询拟投稿期刊的有关规定。若无摘要长度的规定,作者可参照该期刊上所刊登论文的摘要的通常长度。一般来说,国际会议的通知中对摘要的长度均有明确规定。 2 摘要的要素 摘要既然是一篇浓缩的研究论文,其结构就应当与科技论文的结构是相对应的,需要有4个组成部分: ①研究的目的; ②研究的过程和采用的方法; ③主要结果或发现; ④主要结论和推论。 1)研究的目的(Objective or purpose) 研究的目的主要说明研究、制造、调查等的前提、目的和任务、涉及的主题范围或本文解决的主要问题。 通常只用一个句子简单概括研究的特点,例如: development of model, synthesis of polyketone, 尤其在社会科学论文中更常见。 2)研究的过程与采用的方法( Process and Methods) 主要指作者的主要工作过程及采用的技术手段或方法,包括所用的原理、理论、条件、对象、材料、工艺、结构、手段、设备、仪器仪表或软件等。在此部分,作者应尽可能详尽描述出具体过程、变化规律、有效措施等,对新技术手段应清楚描述其基本原理、应用范围及所达到的精度和误差等。 3)主要结果或发现(Results) 这里指作者在此研究工作过程中或使用论文中的研究方法最后所得到的主要结果或发现,它是摘要的最重要部分。结果部分应力求简明而富有信息性,可以是实验或研究所获得的实验数据、实验结果及被确定的关系式,也可以是理论性成果,还可以是所关注的相关关系、观察到的主要现象与结果以及得到的效果和性能等。 目前,有些摘要的主要内容是介绍研究结果,而省略了研究目的、研究方法或理论与实验等的简介。此类摘要对那些精通专业研究领域的资深研究者来说,非常实用,不但省时又省力,而且通过看摘要就可以及时掌握科技发展动态,了解相关的研究水平。 4)主要结论和推论(Conclusion) 这里指的是结果的分析、研究、比较、评价、应用范围和应用情况以及存在的问题等。这部分主要阐明研究成果蕴含的意义,特别阐明这种意义是怎样与研究目的相联系的,但是结论应力求精确、直接、详细、明晰。 3 如何撰写摘要 3. 1 撰写摘要的一般原则 信息性摘要通常在完成论文后再写。 3. 2 撰写摘要的基本步骤 写出的摘要便于读者阅读,即内容完整,语言简洁、准确、流畅,层次分明。 摘要一般在完成论文后撰写,一个可行的方法是:先将论文通读,寻找出论文中关键的句子和要点,然后串联在一起,编写出简明而又综合的摘要。这种“堆砌”( compile)方法很实用,但是切记不要只是简单重复论文中的句子。 撰写摘要的具体步骤如下。 1)以写摘要为目的,阅读全文,拟定草稿 (1)寻找引言部分中的目的和讨论部分中的结论。 (2)找出方法部分中包含关键词的信息,并将其精简为关键词和短语,使之足以确定(但不是解释)论文所用的方法。 (3)寻找讨论部分或者结果部分中的结果。 (4)将以上所寻找出的信息按如下格式进行汇编。 Title: Dryland Grain Sorghum Water Use, Light Interception, and Growth Responses to Planting Geometry. Rationale (原理) Crop yields are primarily water limited under dryland production systems in semiarid regions. Objcetives (目的) This study was conducted to determine whether the growing season water balance could be manipulated through planting geometry. Methods (方法) The effects of row spacing, row direction, and plant population on the water use, light interception, and growth or grain sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L. ) Moenchl were investigated at Bushiand, TX, on a Pullman clay loam ( fine, mixed thermic Torrertic Paleustoll) ]. Results (结果) In 1983,which had a dry growing season, narrow row spacing and higher population increased seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) by 7 and 9 cvo, respectively , and shifted the partitioning of ET to the vegetative period. Mediurti population crops yielded 6. 2 and 2. 3 Mg/ha of dry matter and grain, respectively. High population resulted in high dry matter (6. 1Mg/ha) and low grain yield (1. 6Mg/ha) ,whereas low population resulted in low dry matter (5. 4Mg/ha) and high grain yield (2. 3 Mg/ha). Row direction did not affect water use oryield. In 1984, dry matter production for a given amount of ET and light interception was higher in the narrow2row crops. Evapotranspiration was less for a given amount of light interception in the narrow2row crops and in the north south row crops. Conclusion (结论) Narrow row planting geometry appears to increase the partitioning of ET to the transpiration component and may imp rove the efficiency of dry land cropping systems. (5)脱离原文,写一个大致的草稿。最好从引言和结论部分开始,这些地方通常包含了论文所需强调的内容。 2)以准确简练为目的,修改草稿 (1)检查摘要4 要素是否齐全,补充忽略掉的重要信息。 (2)修改段落,比较结果和方法部分,定出一个合适的长度分配,再据此调整或删除相应的内容,使摘要能表达出实质性的信息。 (3)不要依赖原来论文中组织材料的方式,而应该尝试以一种全新的方式再次组织论文中的信息。 (4)不要重复论文中的关键句子,否则会引入过多无用的信息。 (5)重新组织第一个句子,使之以论文中的新信息(而非概括性的主题)开头。例如,可以“this paper”或者“this study”开头。 (6)改进论点之间的转折或过渡,使之成为有机整体,提高可读性。 (7)删除多余信息。可删除任何与背景有关的信息、多余的词或者短语,做到英文表达规范、清晰、简洁。具体请参看第2章科技论文语言表达的规范与技巧。 (8)校订准确性,以确保数据、量、值、符号等与正文中的一致,同时确保摘要中再没有需要定义或解释的术语以及晦涩难懂的词汇。注意辨别英文符号与希文符号,数据的表达形式统一,量的单位采用国际通用标准,避免已废弃的用法等。 (9)修正在英文语法、单词拼写和标点中出现的错误。注意不能使用中文的“、”“~”等符号,应以“, ”“—”代替。 3)反复通读与修改,至少3 遍,使摘要内容完整、语言流畅 4)打印出最终文稿,再次阅读,发现解决不足之处 4 语态和时态 4. 1 语态 摘要一般很短,尽量不要混用各种语态,更不要在一个句子里混用。科技论文主要说明事实,一般用被动语态。但由于主动语态比被动语态语感强,表达有力,可能情况下尽量用动词的主动语态。 4. 2 时态 由于摘要的形式很多,因而时态的使用变化很大。通常认为用过去时态描述作者的工作,用现在时态描述所做的结论,少有现在完成时、过去完成时,基本不用进行时和其它复合时态。叙述过去某一时刻、某一时段的发现、某一研究过程(实验、观察、调查等过程)常用一般过去时;说明研究的目的、叙述研究内容、描述结果、得出的结论、提出的建议或讨论等,常用一般现在时。对于指示性的陈述可使用过去时,尤其是信息性的陈述需要强调动作的接受者时。一般而言,叙述研究目的时,多用动词的不定式;叙述方法和结果时,多用过去时;阐述很肯定的结论时可用现在时,当结论不很肯定时仍然只能使用过去时。当然一切要依据具体内容而定。 5 摘要的写作要点 (1 ) 完整: complete in and of itself; that is, it should be able to serve as a stand2alone description which provides a complete picture of the resource at the selected level of specificity; (2) 通俗易懂: comprehensive in its representation of the key concepts or significant content that are present in the resource; (3) 精练准确: concise, precise, and accurate in its use of terminology; (4)清晰、紧凑、客观: written in a clear, terse, non critical style; (5)结构逻辑: logically structured in its presentation (见以上4个组成部分) of the selected data and information.SamplesSample 1 Negotiation for Meaning and Peer Assistance in Second Language Classrooms Pauline Foster and Amy Snyder Ohta This paper investigates the value of language classroom negotiation of meaning from both cognitive and socio-cultural perspectives. According to Long (1985, 1996) comprehensible input gained through interactional adjustments such as negotiating meaning and modifying output is central to second language acquisition, and much research has been undertaken to discover which classroom activities give learners the greatest benefit from this type of interaction (Pica 1994). This paper discusses the measures typically used to identify negotiated interaction and proposes that more rigorous definitions need to be employed to separate signals of communication problems from signals of interest and encouragement. In the study reported for this paper, learners were recorded during an interactive classroom task, and the incidence of negotiation moves (learners' clarification requests, comprehension and confirmation checks) was calculated by counting only those instances where communication problems were clearly signaled. The quantitative results show that the incidence of negotiating meaning was very low. A qualitative analysis of the data subsequently investigated what was going on in the long stretches of interaction that lacked any signs of meaning negotiation. A picture emerges of learners actively assisting each other to transact the task through co-construction and prompting. Learners expressed interest and encouragement while seeking and providing assistance and initiating self-repair of their own utterances, all in the absence of communication breakdowns. Obtaining completely comprehensible input appeared to be of lower priority than maintaining a supportive and friendly discourse. Negotiation is one of a range of conversational processes that facilitate SLA as learners work to understand and express meaning in the L2. Sample 2 Architecture for IP Multicast Deployment: Challenges and Practice Hitoshi ASAEDA1, Shinsuke SUZUKI2, Katsushi KOBAYASHI3 and Jun MURAI1 1 The authors are with Keio University, Fujisawa-shi, 252 - 8520 Japan. E-mail: , 2 The author is with ALAXALA Networks Corporation, Kawasaki-shi, 212 - 0058 Japan., 3 The author is with NICT, Koganei-shi, 184 - 8795 Japan. IP multicast technology is highly advantageous for various applications and future needs in the Internet. Yet, it is generally recognized that the IP multicast routing protocol is fairly complex and non-scalable and requires additional maintenance and operational cost to network administrators. Although there has been much research related to IP multicast and most router vendors already support basic IP multicast routing protocols, there is still a big gap between what is reported as the state-of-the-art in the literature from what is implemented in practice. In this paper, we clarify the complexities of traditional multicast communication and describe possible solutions using the one-to-many multicast communication model called Source-Specific Multicast (SSM). We explain this communication model and the corresponding routing architecture and examine the statistics obtained for the number of multicast routing entries in our backbone router, which is connected to the international backbone. We also introduce our international collaboration activities that are contributing to the deployment and promotion of IP multicast services in the Internet.Key Words: IP multicast, Source-Specific Multicast, multicast statistics, M6Bone Useful Expressions 1. The following expressions are often used in the first part of an abstract.篇三:《农业工程学报》论文英文摘要写作要求 《农业工程学报》论文英文摘要写作要求 1)英文摘要重点撰写论文的主体核心内容,切忌过多涉及论文引言部分的论述,若确属必要,原则上用一句话精炼概括。英文摘要核心内容需要清楚阐述研究的目的、方法、结果和结论,应该包括论文的主要内容,及必要时上述部分的展开分析,能够单独地向读者提供主要的论文信息。英文摘要字数要求一般不少于600个实词。 2) 在英文摘要中,研究目的和结论需精炼概括,研究方法和结果部分的写作应尽可能详实、信息量丰富。研究方法主要指作者的研究过程及采用的技术手段或方法,包括原理、理论、条件、材料、工艺、结构、应用范围等;研究结果主要包括试验所获得的试验数据与结果、理论性成果、观察到的主要现象与结果,以及设计与测试中得到的效果与性能等。 3) 在英文摘要的时态方面,阐述自己的研究过程以及研究结果、引用他人已完成的工作时采用一般过去时,叙述研究结论时采用一般现在时。 4) 英文摘要要比中文摘要详尽,不要求与中文摘要对应一致,不需要由中文摘要一一对应地直接翻译。 5)英文摘要中的数字除位于句首外统一用阿拉伯数字,分数形式用阿拉伯数字表示且分数表示范围时“%”不能省略;英文摘要中不能出现公式及符号;缩写第一次出现需括注全称。 6) 关于其他英文信息:英文标题和图表标题尽量简练,冠词the,不定冠词a、an省略;英文标题尽量不出现study on、research on等没有实际意义的词语。图题、图例名称、图标目、图注、表题、表栏头、表注等内容均应为中英文对照,而且要求英文翻译准确、与中文一致。 7) 英文摘要的撰写与图表中的英文翻译务求准确无误,简洁精炼,尽量使用短句。 《农业工程学报》编辑部 2014-08-20本  篇:《龙8国际_龙8娱乐_龙8国际娱乐平台》来源于:龙8国际_龙8娱乐_龙8国际娱乐平台 优秀范文,论文网站
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