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    时间:2017-07-14来源:龙8国际_龙8娱乐_龙8国际娱乐平台 本文已影响
    相关热词搜索:作文 英语 独立 让孩子 帮助孩子独立英语作文 关于独立的英语作文 篇一:中考英语作文范文孩子的独立教育 中考英语作文范文孩子的独立教育 围绕:学校让学生打扫厕所和学校不让学生打扫厕所两种情况.写一不少于80个词的主题为”孩子的独立教育”英语作文.给出词:only child, 让孩子独立的英语作文moral education篇二:初中英语范文之孩子的独立教育 初中英语范文之孩子的独立教育 围绕:学校让学生打扫厕所和学校不让学生打扫厕所两种情况。写一不少于80个词的主题为孩子的独立教育英语作文。 给出词:only child,moral education Nowadays in china,many students are the only child in their family.They are the apple of their parents'eyes or even their granparents',so they are free of any house work or menial labor.and moral education is no more than some bookish thing.Studentsare largely dependent on their parents and teachers. To educate them to be independent,the most effective way is to let them experience on their own.Therefore,they are better to be given the opportunity to get some train at school-to clean the washing room,which can be regarded as part of the moral education.篇三:这些英语作文的万能句子,让孩子们赶紧背下来! 这些英语作文的万能句子,让孩子们赶紧背下来! 对于小学、初中的孩子来说,写好英语作文是有捷径的,那就是背一些作文万能句子,考试的时候灵活运用,对提高分数很有帮助。小编整理了一些比较好的作文万能句子,分享给各位家长,希望可以帮助到孩子们。 一个良好的开头可以给阅卷老师留下一个好的印象。让阅卷老师耳目一新,分数一定不会低的哦! 1.As the proverb says 正如谚语所说 2.what's far more important is that…… 更重要的是…… 3.There are different opinions among people as to ______.Some people suggest that ______.关于……人们有不同的观点。一些人认为…… 4.Everything has two sides and ______is not an exception,it has both advantages and disadvantages.任何事物都是有两面性,……不例外。它既有有利的一面,也有不利的一面。 5.Recently the problem of……has aroused peopie's concern.最近,……问题已引起人们的关注 好多学生在中间段落总想蒙混过关,殊不知中间段落最能拉开作文的分数。 1.There are several measures for us to adopt.First,we can______.有几个可供我们采纳的方法。首先,我们可以…… 2.Nonetheless,I believe that______is more advantageous.尽管如此,我相信……更有利 3.Similarly,we should pay attention to……同样我们要注意…… 4.Further,we hold opinion that……此外,我们坚持认为…… 5.In view of the present station.鉴于目前的形势 一个完整的收尾才能成就一篇完整的英语作文,才能拿到一个高分。 1.From what has ben discussed adove,we may reasonably arrive at the conclusion that_____.综上所述,我们可以清楚地得出结论。 2.I will conclude by saying……最后我要说…… 3.Therefore,we have the reason to believe that……因此,我们有理由相信…… 4.In a word,the whole society should pay close attention to the problem of______.Only in this way can______in the future.总而言之,整个社会应该密切关注……这个问题。只有这样,我们才能在将来……如果觉得这些还不够用,想把英语作文写得更好,也可以把下面这些名言警句记下来。 1.Experience is the best teacher.经验是最好的老师。 2.The first wealth is health.健康是人生的第一财富。 3.Hope for the best and prepare for the worst.做最好的打算,做最坏的打算。 4.Friends agree best at a distance.朋友之间保持一定距离最好。 5.Do not,for one repulse,give up the purpose that you resolved to effect.不要只因一次失败,就放弃你原来决心想达到的目的。 上面的这些句子,建议家长可以适当的让孩子背下来,对于提高孩子英语写作能力还是有一定帮助的。篇四:新东方王江涛四级作文解析及范文—教育与独立 新东方王江涛四级作文解析及范文—教育与独立 新东方在线王江涛 2015年6月的大学英语四级、六级考试已全部结束,新东方在线四、六级教研、辅导团队第一时间对四级真题进行解析。以下是新东方名师王江涛对在对四级作文的真题命题规律进行解析的同时,对三篇作文逐一进行了解析并提供了参考范文,供广大考生参考。 Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay based on the picture below. You should start you essay with a brief description of the picture and then comment on parents’ role in their children’s growth. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 150 words. 命题解析 本题要求首先描述图画,然后评论家长在其孩子成长中的作用。图中显示:一位女儿兴高采烈地告诉母亲:“妈妈,好消息!我被您选择的大学录取了。”显而易见,本题的主旨是:父母为子女做出了太多的决定,造成子女缺乏独立。 关于两代关系这一话题,国内写作考试已经多次考察。2003年考研写作考察图画作文“温室花朵经不起风雨”,即父母溺爱造成子女缺乏独立。2010年12月,四级写作考察“父母如何让孩子独立”。如果之前研究过以上真题,本题易如反掌。 写作思路: 1、本文首段应简要描述图画,指出有些父母过于包办造成子女缺乏独立。 2、次段写法比较灵活,可以具体分析父母过于包办的原因,也可以进行举例论证。 3、尾段最好提出建议措施,呼吁父母放手给孩子自由,而子女应努力寻求独立。 新东方在线王江涛老师参考范文: The drawing vividly reflectsa daughter is chatting with her mother in their house. The eyessparkling with delight, the daughter tells her mother, “Good news mom! I was accepted to the college of your choice.” Obviously, the implication of the portrayal is that the daughter is lack of independence due to her mother’s doting care. The lovely daughter is naturally associated with the only children in our current society; the college of the mother’s choice epitomizes parents’ doting care and abundant material supplies that can shield the children from the harsh reality. Once the young people begin to seek independence and accept challenges from the real world, they are found too spoiled to be strong enough in the face of difficulties. Accordingly, it is vital for us to derive positive implications from the thought-provoking drawing. On the one hand, we can frequently use it to enlighten the youth to be more independent in life. On the other hand, parents should be sensible enough to give their children more freedom to deal with troubles and problems. 这幅漫画生动地揭示了一个女儿正在家中和她的母亲聊天。眼中兴奋地闪着光芒,女儿告诉母亲:“妈妈,好消息!我被您选择的那所大学录取了。”显而易见,这幅漫画的含义就是由于母亲的溺爱,女儿缺乏独立。 这个女儿自然和当代社会的独生子女联系起来;母亲选择的大学就是保护孩子免于严峻现实的父母溺爱和优越物质条件的缩影。一旦年轻人开始寻求独立并且接受来自现实世界的挑战,人们发现他们已经被惯坏了,在困难面前无法足够坚强。 总之,我们很有必要从这幅发人深思的图画中得出积极的含义。一方面,我们可以经常利用它来启发年轻人在生活中更加独立。另一方面,父母们应该充满理智给孩子们更多自由来处理困难和问题。篇五:范文中译英 CET-4范文中译英 2007年6月 原题 Welcome to Our Club 1. 本社团的主要活动内容 2. 参加本社团的好处 3. 如何加入本社团 女士们,先生们,欢迎参加我们英语俱乐部。我们社团成立于两年前,由学生会主办。为了满足成员的学习需要,我们社团定期举办各种活动。我们每周组织英语角活动,能和外教面对面练习口语。除此以外,将不定期的请英语专家给大家做讲座。 参加我们社团您将获益非浅。首先,通过与语言专家的交流和咨询,您将找到最适合自己的英语学习方法,因而对英语学习产生兴趣。其次,您能和外教交朋友,了解英语国家文化。最后,通过您的努力和我们的帮助,您能更轻松的用英语进行准确,流利的表达,这样就会增加你毕业时在跨国公司里找到好工作的机会。 如果您想成为我们俱乐部的成员,请发邮件至englishclub@52eng.edu.cn.感谢您的关注。 2010年12月 原题 How Should Parents Help Children to Be Independent? 1. 目前,不少父母为孩子包办一切 2. 为了让孩子独立,父母应该……. 现在,很多父母过度照顾自己的孩子。从洗衣服到找工作,他们尽自己的一切力量帮助孩子。然而,父母的这些行为剥夺了孩子独立成长的机会。 为了培养孩子的独立意识,父母首先应该停止帮助孩子做那些孩子自己力所能及的事。其次,父母可以有意识的让孩子处于困境和失败,帮助他们从挫折中吸取教训。最后,父母应当给孩子灌输一种责任感。 希望所有的父母都能意识到独立的重要性并能找到更合理的方法来疼爱自己的孩子。 07年6月 Ladies and Gentlemen, welcome to join our English! It is sponsored by the Student Union and was set up two years ago. The club organizes various activities regularly catering for the needs (满足…的需求)of participants. We have English corners every weekend and you can practice your oral English with native speakers. In addition, experts on English learning are invited to give lectures on occasion. A lot of benefits are responsible for your joining us. In the first pace, you can find the English learning methods most suitable for you by communicating with others and consulting language experts, hence making yourself more interested in English learning. Besides, you can make friends with foreigners and get to know their cultures. Lastly, through your own efforts andwith our help, you can speak accurate and fluent English with more ease, thus increasing your chances of landing a good job in multinationals upon graduation. You can email us at if you want to become a member of our club. Thank you for your interest. 2010年12月 Nowadays, a lot of parents are overdoing in taking care of their children. From doing laundry to job hunting, they have made every effort. However, such deeds deprive the youth of opportunities to grow independent. In order to cultivate a sense of independence in their children, parents are supposed to first stop doing what the youngsters are able to do for themselves. Besides, it is advisable that parents expose their children to more difficulties and failures on purpose, helping them to learn valuable lessons from setbacks. Last but not least, parents should infuse(灌输) their children with a sense of responsibility. It is hopeful that all parents realize the importance of independence and find a more sensible way to love their kids.篇六:托福独立写作范文:父母应该为孩子做决定吗? 智课网TOEFL备考资料 托福独立写作范文:父母应该为孩子做决定吗? 托福 独立写作的作文形式固定,参考别人的范文就可以使大家学到很多东西,使自己的文章更加的优秀。 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents or other adult relatives should make important decisions for their older (15 to 18 year-old) teenaged children。 Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion。 No one knows me as well as my parents。 No one wants the best for me like my parents。 It is natural that I should allow my parents to make important decisions for me。 I think all older teenagers (15 to 18 year-olds) should take their parents advice on decisions that concern their education,their social life,and their future careers。 My parents have always chosen the best schools for me to attend。 They have encouraged me to attend special prep classes to make sure that I was well prepared for the exams。 They have given me tutors to make sure that I understood my subjects well。 When it comes to choosing a college,I will trust my parents to make that decision。 They know what they can afford and what will give me a good education。 When I was young,my parents would invite children over to play with me。 Over the years,I have become very close to these children。 They are like my family。 We celebrate holidays and birthdays together。 We even go to the mountains together in the summer。 My parents do not want me to fall into the wrong crowd。 They do not want me to meet and fall in love with someone they do not know。 I understand that and I want to make them happy。 My father runs a very successful business and my mother is a well-known politician。 They are very well connected and they have many friends who would like me to work for them when I finish school。 This is a very good arrangement for me。 If all children follow their parents’ wishes,they would probably be happier。 Parents only want the best for their children。 相关推荐: 托福写作范文:children’s numerical skills 专家讲解托福写作常犯错误 托福综合写作:模板是把双刃剑 相关字搜索: 托福写作 篇七:关于儿童教育英语龙8国际网上娱乐(作文) Education Education Hello everyone. Today I will talk about education. Children's education. Everyone has experienced during childhood or become parents. so today you will feeling of my word perhaps. I will more want to talk about Chinese children’s education. This is only my private opinion. Children under Chinese education is pitiable. They are living in a spoiled world .Most of parents allow their children to do everything they want to do whether it's accurate or not ,or buy children whatever they desire. Even children do the wrong thing there is no education. 中国式教育下的孩子都是可悲的,他们生活在溺爱的世界里,很多家长允许孩子做一切他们想做的事,却不管这样对不对。要什么就给买什么,犯了错误也不教育。 For example: some parents condone children in urine anywhere. Parents should tell their children where the toilet, rather than the children do the way they like. As I have seen parents allow their children to pass water on the floor at home .Parents just do services instead of giving correct guidance to children. 比如说:有些家长纵容孩子随地大小便,父母不告诉他们应该在哪上厕所,而是孩子想怎样就怎样,我就见过家人允许自己的孩子在家里的地上随意的大小便,他们只是对孩子做服务工作而不是引导。 I wonder that under such education,whether the parents think about how children will be like in the future. Although parents offer children the best living conditions and material base, but they don`t foster children how to think independently, or do correct judgment. I really want to know do these parents also got such education when they were young. 我不知道这样的父母有没有想过他们这样教育孩子,将来孩子会是什么样子,虽然他们给孩子提供了他们所能提供的最好的生活条件和物质基础,但却没有教会孩子如何独立思考、正确判断事物的能力,我想问这些人,是不是他们小的时候也是这样受教育的。 We often see some youth made foolish or illegal activities in the media. I believe that they were not born with these activities. Of course ,there are social reasons ,but more or main impact is the bad education from parents. 我们经常可以在媒体上看到一些未成年人作出的愚蠢的、违法的事,我相信这些都不是他们与生俱来的,当然,这之中少不了社会影响的因素,但是更多的还是父母的教育。 In Chinese families, I have seen a lot of this phenomenon, when a child who just fell down on the ground, just stand instability, and without any injuries ,the whole people of family put down everything, rushed to the baby and hold baby up ,and ask baby ached or not, or rub legs and arms, or give toys to make baby happy. I would like to know, if you fell down then get such a good treatment, will you climb up? Why the creativity, independence of children is so bad? Perhaps the reason is, children can get whatever they want, parents will instead of children to do all things. 在中国家庭中,我看到过很多这样的现象,当一个刚学会走路不久的小孩不小心摔倒的时候,孩子并没有受任何伤,只是站的不稳,孩子刚倒在地下,全家人放下手中的一切冲过去把孩子抱起来,一边心疼的问着疼不疼,一边帮忙揉胳膊揉腿,还有给孩子玩具让孩子高兴的,我想问一下,如果你们不小心摔一跤能够有这么好的待遇,那你们以后摔倒了还愿意自己爬起来吗?为什么我们孩子的创造性、独立性那么差?也许这就是原因,因为他们想要的都可以得到,本来是他们自己要做的事情都已经有人替他们做好了。 I love my country, I hope next generation will be better. I also believe all the parents love their children. However the responsibility of parents is not just love their children, I think the most important things are education and guidance. Family education is very important to decidewhat kind of person will children be in the future .I want to say to parents, please think about what you have done to children today, decide how they will be in the future? Do you want to ruin his/her life ? 我爱我的国家,所以我希望我们的下一代能够更好,我相信这个世界上的每一个人父母都是爱自己孩子的,但父母的责任不仅仅只是爱,还有教育和引导,一个孩子未来能够成为什么样的人,家庭的影响是很重要的,我想对他们说:你们今天对孩子所做的一切,决定了将来他是一个怎样的人?所以,你愿意毁了他的一生吗? There is a movie gave me emotionally, called "The Road", which I thought of my father, and also thought of my children in future. I hope I can be like the boy in the movie, when his father left he became a strong man .I also want to be like the father in "The Road", can telling to my kids "keep the fire, the fire inside you". 有一部电影曾让我深有感触,叫做《the road》,它我想到了我的父亲,同时也想到了我未来的孩子,我希望我可以向电影中的孩子一样,当父亲离开的时候一个人坚强的走下去,也可以向那个父亲一样,告诉我的孩子“keep the fire,the fire inside you”篇八:英语短文带翻译 电视电视--以快速变化与发展为标志的最普遍、最具有影响力的一项现代技术,正在步 入一个极端复杂化与多样化的新时代。 这个时代承诺重新塑造我们的生活和我们的世界。 这可以称得上是又一次电子革命,其关键在于电视技术与计算机技术的结合。"电视"这个词 来源于希腊语词根(tele:远)和拉丁语词根(vision:景象),可以从字面上理解为来自远处的 景象。 简单说来,电视是以这种方式工作的,通过一个复杂的电子系统,电视能够将一幅 图像(这幅图像被聚焦在一部摄像机内的一块特殊的光导底片上)转换成能经过导线或电缆 发送出去的电子脉冲信号。 >01 Television Television -- the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies, marked by rapid change and growth – is moving into a new era, an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility, which promises to reshape our lives and our world. It is an electronic revolution of sorts, made possible by the marriage of television and computer technologies. The word "television", derived from its Greek (tele: distant) and Latin (visio: sight) roots, can literally be interpreted as sight from a distance. Very simply put, it works in this way: through a sophisticated system of electronics, television provides the capability of converting an image(focused on a special photoconductive plate within a camera) into electronic impulses, which can be sent through a wire or cable. These impulses, when fed into a receiver (television set), can then be electronically reconstituted into that same image. Television is more than just an electronic system, however. It is a means of expression, as well as a vehicle for communication, and as such becomes a powerful tool for reaching other human beings. The field of television can be divided into two categories determined by its means of transmission. First, there is broadcast television, which reaches the masses through broad-based airwave transmission of television signals. Second, there is nonbroadcast television, which provides for the needs of individuals or specific interest groups through controlled transmission techniques. Traditionally, television has been a medium of the masses. We are most familiar with broadcast television because it has been with us for about thirty-seven years in a form similar to what exists today. During those years, it has been controlled, for the most part, by the broadcast networks, ABC, NBC, and CBS, who have been the major purveyors (货物、服务、消息等的提供者,供应者)of news, information, and entertainment. These giants of broadcasting have actually shaped not only television but our perception of it as well. We have come to look upon the picture tube as a source of entertainment, placing our role in this dynamic medium as the passive viewer. 当这些电子脉冲信号被输入一部接收机(电视机)时,就可以用 电子学的方法把脉冲信号重新恢复成同一幅图像。但是,电视不仅仅是一个电子系统,它还是一种表达工具和传播渠道。 因此,电视成了一个对其他人发生影响的强大工具。电视这 个领域可以根据其发射方式分为两类。 第一类为广播电视,通过电视信号的宽带无线电波 发射展现在大众面前;第二类为非广播电视,使用受控的发射技术来满足个人以及某些特殊利益群体的需要。电视早已成为大众媒介。 我们熟悉广播电视,因为广播电视已经以类似 目前的方式存在了大约 37 年。 在那些年头中,电视绝大部分一直由 ABC、NBC、CBS 这 些广播电视公司控制着,这些广播电视公司一直是新闻、信息和娱乐的主要提供者。 这些 广播业的巨头实际上不仅塑造了电视,而且也塑造了我们对电视的理解。 我们渐渐把显像 管看作是娱乐的来源,让自己成为这个生动的媒介的被动观众。 >02 Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie, known as the King of Steel, built the steel industry in the United States, and, in the process, became one of the wealthiest men in America. His success resulted in part from his ability to sell the product and in part from his policy of expanding during periods of economic decline, when most of his competitors were reducing their investments. Carnegie believed that individuals should progress through hard work, but he also felt strongly that the wealthy should use their fortunes for the benefit of society. He opposed charity, preferringinsteadto provide educationalopportunities that would allowothers tohelp themselves. "He who dies rich, dies disgraced, " he often said. Among his more noteworthy contributions to society are those that bear his name, including the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh, which has a library, a museum of fine arts, and a museum of national history. He also founded a school of technology that is now part of Carnegie-Mellon University. Other philanthropic gifts are the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace to promote understanding between nations, the Carnegie Institute of Washington to fund scientific research, and Carnegie Hall to provide a center for the arts. Few Americans have been left untouched by Andrew Carnegie's generosity. His contributions of more than five million dollars established 2,500 libraries in small communities throughout the country and formed the nucleus of the public library system that we all enjoy today. 安德鲁·卡内基 被称作钢铁大王的安德鲁·卡内基在美国建立了钢铁工业。 在这个过 程中,他变成了美国最富有的人之一。 他的成功,部分来自于他销售产品的能力,部分来 自于经济萧条时期的扩充策略。 在萧条时期,他的多数对手都在缩减投资。卡内基认为个 人应该通过努力工作来获得进展,但他也强烈地感到有钱人应该运用他们的财富来为社会谋 取福利。 他反对施舍救济,更愿意提供教育机会,使别人自立。 卡内基经常说:"富有着 死去的人死得可耻。"他对社会的较重要的贡献都以他的名字命名。 这些贡献包括匹兹堡卡 内基学校。 这个学校有一个图书馆,一个美术馆和一个国家历史博物馆;他还创立了一所 技术学校,这所学校现在是卡内基 梅隆大学的一部分;其他的慈善捐赠有为促进国家间了 解的"卡内基国际和平基金",为科学研究提供经费的华盛顿卡内基学院以及给各种艺术活动 提供活动中心的卡内基音乐厅。安德鲁·卡内基的慷慨大度几乎影响到每个美国人的生活。 由于他超过五百万美元的捐款,2500 个图书馆得以建立起来,遍布在美国各地的小村镇, 形成了我们今天还在享用的公共图书馆系统的核心。 >03 American Revolution The American Revolution was not a revolution in the sense of a radical or total change. It was not a sudden and violent overturning of the political and social framework, such as later occurred in France and Russia, when both were already independent nations. Significant changes were ushered in, but they were not breathtaking. Whathappened was accelerated evolution rather than outright revolution. During the conflict itself people went onworking and praying, marrying and playing. Most of them were not seriously disturbed by the actual fighting, and many of the more isolated communities scarcely knew that a war was on. America's War of Independence heralded the birth of three modern nations. One was Canada, which received its first large influx of English-speaking population from the thousands of loyalists who fled there from the United States. Another was Australia, which became a penal colony now that America was no longer available for prisoners and debtors. The third newcomer -- the United States -- based itself squarely on republican principles. Yet even the political overturn was not so revolutionary as one might suppose. In some states, notably Connecticut and Rhode Island, the war largely ratified a colonial self-rule already existing. British officials, everywhere ousted, were replaced by a home-grown governing class, which promptly sought a local substitute for king and Parliament. 美国革命 美国革命其实并不算是一场革命,因为它并未导致完全的和彻底的变化。 这 次革命并不是对政治和社会框架的一次突然和猛烈的颠覆,象后来在已经是独立国家的法国 和俄国所爆发的革命那样。 革命带来了重大的变化,但并非翻天覆地,所发生的只是进化 的加速,而不是一场彻底的革命;在冲突期间,人们仍然上班、做礼拜、结婚、玩耍。 多数人并没有受到实际战斗的严重影响。 许多较闭塞的社区对这场战争几乎一无所知。美国 独立战争宣布了三个现代国家的诞生,其中一个是加拿大。 加拿大的第一大批讲英语的流 入人口来自于成千上万英王的效忠者, 这些人从美国逃到了加拿大。 另一个国家是澳大利 亚,因为美国不再是容纳罪犯和欠债者的国度了,澳大利亚就变成了一个惩治罪犯的殖民地(注:独立战争前,英国政府将罪犯流放到美国)。 第三个国家就是美国,它完全建立在共和原则基础上。即使政治上的颠覆也不如人们可能想象的那样具有革命性。 在一些州,特 别是康涅狄格和罗德岛,战争基本上只是承认了已经存在的殖民地的自治。 四处被驱逐的 英国官员都被本土的统治阶级所替代,这个统治阶级迅速地以地方权力机关来替代国王和议 会。 >04 Suburbanization If by "suburb" is meant an urban margin that grows more rapidly than its already developed interior, the process of suburbanization began during the emergence of the industrial city in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Before that period the city was a small highly compact cluster in which people moved about on foot and goods were conveyed by horse and cart. But the early factories built in the 1830's and 1840's were located alongwaterways and near railheads at the edges of cities, and housing was needed for the thousands of people drawn by the prospect of employment. In time, the factories were surrounded by proliferating mill towns of apartments and row houses that abutted the older, main cities. As a defense against this encroachment and to enlarge their tax bases, the cities appropriated their industrial neighbors. In1854, for example, the city of Philadelphia annexed most of Philadelphia County. Similar municipal maneuvers took place in Chicago and in New York. Indeed, most great cities of the United States achieved such status only by incorporating the communities along their borders. With the acceleration of industrial growth came acute urban crowding and accompanying social stress -- conditions that began to approach disastrous proportions when, in 1888, the first commercially successfulelectric traction line was developed. Withina few yearsthe horse-drawn trolleys were retired and electric streetcar networks crisscrossed and connected every major urban area, fostering a wave of suburbanization that transformed the compact industrial city into a dispersed metropolis.This first phase of mass-scale suburbanization was reinforced by the simultaneous emergence of the urban Middle Class, whose desires for homeownership in neighborhoods far from the aging inner city were satisfied by the developers of single-family housing tracts. 郊区的发展 如果"郊区"指的是比已建好的城市内部发展更为迅速的城市边缘地带,那 么郊区化可以说始于 1825 年至 1850 年工业化城市出现期间。 在这之前,城市只是高度密 集的小聚居群。 在其中,人们步行走动,商品靠马车来运送。 但是建于 18 世纪三四十年 代的早期工厂位于城边的航道和铁路附近,被工作机会吸引到这里的成千上万的人们需要住房。 渐渐地,在与旧有的主要城区相毗邻的地方,不断涌现出由排房和公寓楼组成的工人 聚居区,包围了工厂。作为对这种侵蚀的自卫,也为了扩大它们收税的地域范围,城市吞并 了工业化的临近地带,比如 1854 年费城的城区就兼并了费县的绝大部分地区。 相似的城市 化也发生在芝加哥和纽约。 今天很多美国的大城市其实就是靠吞并它们附近的边缘地区而 变成大都会的。随着工业化的加速发展,城市里出现了严重拥挤和相伴而来的社会压力。 当1888 年第一条商业上成功的电气化铁轨被制造出来时,压力开始接近危机的程度。 几年之内,马车就被废弃了,电车网相互交织连接着各个重要的城区,从而形成了一种郊区化的潮 流,即密集的工业城市转变成了分散的都市。 此时城市中产阶级的出现进一步加强了第一 波大规模郊区化。 这些中产阶级希望在远离老旧城市的地区拥有住宅,单一家庭住宅地区 的开发者满足了他们的愿望。 >5 Types of Speech Standard usage includes those words and expressions understood, used, and accepted by a majority of the speakers of a language in any situation regardless of the level of formality. As such, these words and expressions are well defined and listed in standard dictionaries. Colloquialisms, on the other hand, are familiar words and idioms that are understood by almost all speakers of a language and used in informal speech or writing, but not considered appropriate for more formal situations. Almost all idiomatic expressions are colloquial language. Slang, however, refers to words and expressions understood by a large number of speakers but not accepted as good, formal usage by the majority. Colloquial expressions and even slang may be found in standard dictionaries but will be so identified. Both colloquial usage and slang are more common in speech than in writing. Colloquial speech often passes into standard speech. Some slang also passes into standard speech, but other slang expressions enjoy momentary popularity followed by obscurity. In some cases, the majority never accepts certain slang phrases but nevertheless retains them in their collective memories. Every generation seems to require its ownset of words to describe familiar objects and events. It has been pointed out by a number of linguists that three cultural conditions are necessary for the creation of a large body of slang expressions. First, the introduction and acceptance of new objects and situations in the society; second, a diverse population with a large number of subgroups; third, association among the subgroups and the majority population Finally, it is worth noting that the terms "standard" "colloquial" and "slang" exist only as abstract labels for scholars who study language. Only a tiny number of the speakers of any language will be aware that they are using colloquial or slang expressions. Most speakers of English will, during appropriate situations, select and use all three types of expressions. 语言的类型 标准用法包括那些为使用这种语言的大多数人在任何场合下理解、使用和 接受的词和短语,而不论该场合是否正式。 这些词和短语的意义已很确定并被列入了标准 词典中。 相反,俗语是指那些几乎所有讲这种语言的人都理解并在非正式的口头或书面中 使用,却不适用于更正规的一些场合的词和短语。 几乎所有的习惯用语都属于俗语,而俚 语指的是为很多讲这种语言的人理解但大多数人不把它们列入好的、正式用法之内的词和短 语;俗语甚至俚语都可能在标准字典中查到,但是字典中会标明它们的性质。 俗语和俚语 词汇的应用都是口头较多、笔头较少。俗语用法经常地被接受为标准用法。 一些俚语也变 成了标准用法,但另外一些俚语只经历了短暂的流行,而后就被弃之不用了。 有时候,多 数人从来不接受某些俚语,但是他们把这些俚语保存到集中记忆中。 每一代人似乎都需要 独有的一套词汇来描述熟知的物体和事件。 很多语言学家指出,大量俚语的形成需要三个 文化条件:第一,对社会中新事物的引入和接受;第二,一个由大量子群构成的多样化人口; 第三,各子群与多数人口之间的联系。最后需要提到的是,"标准语"、"俗语"和"俚语"这些 术语只是对研究语言的专家才有用的抽象标签。不论何种语言,只会有很小一部分使用者能够意识到他们是在使用俗语或俚语。 讲英语的多数人能够在适当的场合中选择使用所有 这三种语言类型。 06 The Language of Music A painter hangs his or her finished picture on a wall, and everyone can see it. A composer writes a work, but no one can hear it until it is performed. Professional singers and players have great responsibilities, for the composer is utterly dependent on them. A student of music needs as long and as arduous a training to become a performer as a medical student needs to become a doctor. Most training is concerned with technique, for musicians have to have the muscular proficiency of an athlete or a ballet dancer. Singers practice breathing every day, as their vocal chords would be inadequate without controlled muscular support. String players practice moving the fingers of the left hand up and down, while drawing the bow to and fro with the right arm -- two entirely different movements. Singers and instrumentalists have to be able to get every note perfectly in tune. Pianists are spared this particular anxiety, for the notes are already there, waiting for them, and it is the piano tuner's responsibility to tune the instrument for them. But they have their own difficulties: the hammers that hit the strings have to be coaxed not to soundlike percussion, and each overlapping tone has to sound clear. This problem of getting clear texture is one that confronts student conductors: they have to learn to know every note of the music and how it should sound, and they have to aim at controlling these sounds with fanatical but selfless authority. Technique is of no use unless it is combined with musical knowledge and understanding. Great artists are those who are so thoroughly at home in the language of music that they can enjoy performing works written in any century. 音乐的语言 画家将已完成的作品挂在墙上,每个人都可以观赏到。 作曲家写完了一部作品,得由 演奏者将其演奏出来,其他人才能得以欣赏。因为作曲家是如此完全地依赖于职业歌手和职 业演奏者,所以职业歌手和职业演奏者肩上的担子可谓不轻。 一名学音乐的学生要想成为 一名演奏者,需要经受长期的、严格的训练,就象一名医科的学生要成为一名医生一样。绝 大多数的训练是技巧性的。 音乐家们控制肌肉的熟练程度,必须达到与运动员或巴蕾舞演 员相当的水平。 歌手们每天都练习吊嗓子,因为如果不能有效地控制肌肉的话,他们的声 带将不能满足演唱的要求。 弦乐器的演奏者练习的则是在左手的手指上下滑动的同时,用 右手前后拉动琴弓--两个截然不同的动作。歌手和乐器演奏者必须使所有的音符完全相同协 调。 钢琴家们则不用操这份心,因为每个音符都已在那里等待着他们了。 给钢琴调音是调 音师的职责。 但调音师们也有他们的难处: 他们必须耐心地调理敲击琴弦的音锤,不能让 音锤发出的声音象是打击乐器,而且每个交叠的音都必须要清晰。如何得到乐章清晰的纹理 是学生指挥们所面临的难题:他们必须学会了解音乐中的每一个音及其发音之道。 他们还 必须致力于以热忱而又客观的权威去控制这些音符。除非是和音乐方面的知识和悟性结合起 来,单纯的技巧没有任何用处。 艺术家之所以伟大在于他们对音乐语言驾轻就熟,以致于 可以满怀喜悦地演出写于任何时代的作品。 >07 Schooling and Education It is commonly believed in the United States that school is where people go to get an education. Nevertheless, it has been said that today children interrupt their education to go to school. The distinction between schooling and education implied by this remark is important. Education is much more open-ended and all-inclusive than schooling. Education knows no bounds. It can take place anywhere, whether in the shower or in the job, whether in a kitchen or on a tractor. It includes both the formal learning that takes place in schools and the whole universe of informal learning. The agents of education can range from a revered grandparent to the people debating politics on the radio, from a child to a distinguished scientist. Whereas schooling has a certain predictability, education quite often produces surprises. A chance conversation with a stranger may lead a person to discover how little is known of other religions. People are engaged in education from infancy on. Education, then, is a very broad, inclusive term. It is a lifelong process, a process that starts long before the start of school, and one that should be an integral part of one's entire life. Schooling, on the other hand, is a specific, formalized process, whose general pattern varies littlefromone setting to the next. Throughout a country, children arrive at school at approximately the same time, take assigned seats, are taught by an adult, use similar textbooks, do homework, take exams, and so on. The slices of reality that are to be learned, whether they are the alphabet or an understanding of the workings of government, have usually been limited by the boundaries of the subject being taught. For example, high school students know that they are not likely to find out in their classes the truth about political problems in their communities or what the newest filmmakers are experimenting with. There are definite conditions surrounding the formalized process of schooling. 上学与受教育 在美国,人们通常认为上学是为了受教育。 而现在却有人认为孩子们上学打断了他们 受教育的过程。 这种观念中的上学与受教育之间的区别非常重要。 与上学相比,教育更具 开放性,内容更广泛。 教育不受任何限制。 它可以在任何场合下进行,在淋浴时,在工作 时,在厨房里或拖拉机上。 它既包括在学校所受的正规教育,也包括一切非正规教育。 传 授知识的人可以是德高望重的老者,可以是收音机里进行政治辩论的人们,可以是小孩子, 也可以是知名的科学家。 上学读书多少有点可预见性,而教育往往能带来意外的发现。 与 陌生人的一次随意谈话可能会使人认识到自己对其它宗教其实所知甚少。 人们从幼时起就 开始受教育。 因此,教育是一个内涵很丰富的词,它自始至终伴随人的一生,早在人们上 学之前就开始了。 教育应成为人生命中不可缺少的一部分。然而,上学却是一个特定的形 式化了的过程。 在不同场合下,它的基本形式大同小异。 在全国各地,孩子们几乎在同一 时刻到达学校,坐在指定的座位上,由一位成年人传授知识,使用大致相同的教材,做作业, 考试等等。 他们所学的现实生活中的一些片断,如字母表或政府的运作,往往受到科目范 围的限制。 例如,高中生们知道,在课堂上他们没法弄清楚他们社区里政治问题的真情, 也不会了解到最新潮的电影制片人在做哪些尝试。篇九:六年级英语作文 (精选) 第一讲:记叙文作文教学技巧 中国科学院附属实验学校 孙彦 老师们: 大家好。 今天由我与各位交流作文教学的一些做法,主要是在操作层面上的交流。因为,作为教师,我应该清醒地认识到:课程是一定的、教材是一定的、学生是一定的,留给教师工作的空间,就是研究如何通过实施课程与教材,提高学生的学科学习能力,进而实现教书育人。因此说,研究教学方法,即:通过什么形式,用什么手段去教会学生学习则是我们的任务。 一、微写作创作与作文教学技巧课程简介 《微写作创作与作文教学技巧》是我总结出的《作文教学十八招儿》的一部分,主要是解决学生没有内容可写的问题。 本课程的服务对象是青年教师,针对当前在教学指导方面方向性内容多,而教学方法少,很多经验需要经过二次创造,才能借鉴的现状,重点把我在教学中使用的一些自认为行之有效的做法拿到这里,供青年教师研究和参考。 纵观本课程大致有三个特点。 第一个特点:也是最重要的一点,就是注重对学生进行思维训练。具体做法:就是把思维训练与表达训练分开进行,以思维训练为切入点。因为,说出的语言和撰写的文章,都是人们思考成果的外显。如果一味地盯住让学生多写,就舍本求末了。 第二个特点:注重对学生进行写作程序的训练。把难以控制的写作过程控制住;而且,教给学生写作文的抓手,使他们看得见、抓得住、做得到。 第三个特点:坚持“三在”原则。在新《课标》“能主动进行探索性学习,在实践中学习、运用语文”,以及“应注重应用”的总要求下,坚持“在生活中学习,在模仿中 学会,在比较中生成”。重点是培养学生离开教师组织后的再学习能力,也就是独立学习能力。 所谓“在生活中学习”就是写真人真事。文章是社会生活的反映。首先帮助学生认识到:写作是表达思想和感情的一种交流形式。要从写生活中确实发生的事情练习写作,最好是亲自经历或亲眼看到的事情;避免没有生活原型的杜撰,在这方面教师须给学生以积极的引导。 所谓“在模仿中学会”,就是有目的、有重点、有步骤、有系统地组织学生向别人学习。虽然说“百闻不如一见、百看不如一练”。但是,练什么至关重要。这里还有一个标准问题和科学问题。有人曾以一个例子说服了我,现在与青年教师分享:过去人们几十年如一日地做贴饼子熬白菜,到头来人到80岁还只会贴饼子熬白菜。今天年轻人上3年职业学校,就成为中西餐专业人才;再经过努力,成为中级厨师、高级厨师,甚至特级厨师。因此,不能盲目相信多读多写。 所谓“在比较中生成”,就是要多组织交流、多组织分析、多组织展示。俗话说:“有比较才有鉴别”。比较是最基础的思维形式,也是促进学生思维的有效方法之一。 最后,我要说明一点:“教无定法” 必须建立在有多 种方法可选的前提之下才可以这样说;否则,就成了“教而无法”。没有方法也就失去了“教”的内容和意义。 同时,我们也必须看到:任何一把钥匙都不可能打开所有的锁。我认为,须在一种原则、理念或理论指导下,去探索、去寻找、去创造,才能获得行之有效的教学方法,真正做到“一把钥匙开一把锁”。 再者,由于每个人的阅历不同、知识结构不同、对作文教学的认识也不相同等原因,我使用的方法对青年教师不一定适用。渴望各位对本课程评头品足,提出宝贵意见和建议。 二、本单元内容简介 本单元主要研究如何解决学生作文没有可写的问题。将我在作文教学中积累的一些具体做法呈献出来。这些做法的主要特征是将概念形象化,给作文学生以一定的抓手。同时,为青年教师提供某些参考,旨在抛砖引玉;促进互相借鉴,共同提高。 现实中,我们常常发现一些学生反映笔下没有内容可写,即使好不容易找到一件事,也是三言两语把事情叙述完,以至于写出的作文内容空泛;更有甚者把一件事情写 来写去,从小学就写这一件事,到中学还用这件事应付老师。 我从实践中感觉到,学生之所以感到没有的可写,主要有三个方面的原因: 首先是畏惧心理在作怪,把作文看得非常神秘、高不可攀;还没动笔就已经败下阵。他们没有弄清楚,作文是人们日常交际与表达的一种方式;此外,还有口头、手语、旗语等交际与表达方式,所以往往编作文。由于在一种非正常状态下写作文,退一万步讲,即使写出文章也往往脱离实际,当然也失去交流和表达的实际意义了。 二是搜集素材缺少标准,造成骑马找马。百度百科解释:生活是指人类生存过程中各项活动的总和。实践也证明:生活是取之不尽用之不竭的创作源泉。学生面对极为丰富的生活素材,不是按照一定的标准选取,而是以“范文”所写的材料为模板按图索骥,结果很难找到完全相同的材料。 三是误把记叙文“六要素”中的“经过”看成一个点,没有抓住一个过程把情节展开写。尤其是在记叙过程中,没有通过描写把事情的主要情景和人物行为活动表现出来。 因此,本单元分“向自我介绍学习打消学生的畏惧心理”,“向绘画学习搜集素材”,“向母鸡下蛋学习打腹稿”“向竹子学习写情节,即记述一个过程”、“向竹杈学习插叙”以及“向蝎子钩学习点明中心”6个做法与青年教师交流;其目的是研究一下如何把学生教会的问题,从而提高学生的写作能力,实现学生有的可写这一基本目标。本  篇:《龙8国际_龙8娱乐_龙8国际娱乐平台》来源于:龙8国际_龙8娱乐_龙8国际娱乐平台 优秀范文,论文网站
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